vi editor commands


vi is a classic text editor that has been available with Unix systems right from the beginning. vi has been a very popular text editor and one can edit files very efficiently using it. In this tutorial, we look at some of the vi commands that make it such a powerful editor.… Read more

Using the make utility to build software (Primer)


As the number of source files and libraries required to build a software increase in number, the build process gets more complicated and the time required to build the final executable becomes more and more. Here, the classic make utility available in Linux and other Unix-like environments comes to the rescue as it automatically builds the software based on rules given in a makefile and optimizes on the build process by compiling only the files that have changed since the last build.… Read more

USING diff and patch


Quite often, we wish to know the differences between two versions of a file or a group of files, which may be organized in a directory tree. We wish to be sure that work done is as desired and no errors have been introduced inadvertently in the file(s).… Read more

The Agile Concurrent Software Process

Concurrent activities

by Karunesh Johri


The major activities required in a software development life cycle (SDLC) were identified in the waterfall model. The agile concurrent software process model proposes that the activities identified in the waterfall model are not done sequentially; these activities progress concurrently with varying intensities during the entire software life cycle.

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The making of UNIX Operating System


Unix quotation by Thompson and Ritchie



Compatible Time-Sharing System, CTSS, was developed at MIT under Project MAC. It was one of the first time-sharing operating systems, demonstrated in 1961 and was in use till 1973. CTSS was used on IBM 7094 and was "compatible" with standard batch processing OS for 7094, the Fortran Monitoring System (FMS); it ran a copy of FMS in background.… Read more